Introduction to the Era of Hazrat Umar (RA).
Hazrat Umar (RA) was the close friend Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and special advisor to Abu Bakr Siddique (RA). He is known for his bravery and justice in the history of Islam. Hazrat Umar Ibn-e-Khattab (RA) or Hazrat Umar Farooq was the most influential and powerful companion of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). When he embraced Islam, the Muslims became more strengthened. They started prayers openly in Makkah (the house of Allah). Hazrat Umar Farooq Ibn-e-Khattab (RA) was the role model of Islamic teachings. Thousands of people embraced Islam in his dynasty. Roman ambassador also impressed from his character and embraced Islam. He had instructed his commanders to invoke Islam before war.
Founded the Government’s Treasury.
Hazrat Umar (RA) was a good administrator. He established government treasury in his dynasty at the first time. The second caliph established central treasure office at Madina city. Then, he established provincial treasury offices in all provinces. The income of provincial governments were used to deposit in these offices. Provincial officials expend the collected amounts according to their needs. The Provincial governments used to deposit the extra amount in central treasury office. He deputed loyal/ dutiful people on the duty of treasury. In this way, Hazrat Umar (RA) increased the budget and strengthened the central government Muslims.
Justice for All.
One of the great service of Hazrat Umar (RA) was just for all. He introduced an exemplary judiciary system in his mastery. Umar (RA) provided easy and immediate justice to all. He deputed a chief justice for supervision of all provincial and local courts. The chief justice and other judges were independent in taking decisions. They were taking decisions in the light of Quran and Hadiths. The caliph himself had the authority to appoint a judge. Hazrat Umar (RA) provided them a lot of incentives. A reasonable salary were paid to them.
Umar (RA) established another pioneer department, which was known as Mehkama-e-Ehtesab (accountability bureau). The department was responsible for moral accountability of government servants. Police and prisoner departments worked under the supervision of accountability bureau.
Founded First Islamic Regular Army.
There were no regular Islamic army before the era of Hazrat Umar (RA). In those days, the people were joining wars and battles voluntarily. Hazrat Umar (RA) founded a regular Islamic army and also made cantonments for them. He organized regular military training for the army and increased their pay.
Issuance of Islamic Currency.
In those days, there were not Islamic currency in the Islamic states. The people were using Iranian or other foreign golden and bronze currency for trade. Hazrat Umar (RA) introduced an Islamic currency for trade at the first time. In this way, trade and other relevant things of Islamic states became more strengthened.
Founded First Post Office System.
Hazrat Umar (RA) founded first post office system with the name of Devin-e-Areed in Islamic states. He established many post office stations at suitable places all across the Islamic states. Hazrat Umar (RA) enrolled many servants for this department. They were shifting public and official posts and letters from one place to other place. It was the first regular communication department of Islamic states.
Issuance of Islamic Calendar.
Hazrat Umar (RA) had regularized many thing during his period. Islamic calendar is also one of his achievement. He prepared and issued Islamic calendar for Muslims during his era. The people were using Christian calendar in those days. Islamic calendar was appreciated and well-received among the public.
Welfare Projects and Agriculture Reforms.
Umar (RA) worked day and night for the welfare of his people. He used to visit towns and villages on daily basis in order to know the problems of people. The second caliph solved many public problems during his period. He made many water canals of drinking and agriculture water. Nehar-e-Moallaq (Moallaq Canal) and Nehar-e-Ameer ul Momeen (The Caliph Canal) are the famous canals of his period. Hazrat Umar (RA) brought many agriculture reforms in Islamic states in general and Iraq in particular. He promoted agriculture in this way and achieved the desired goals in agriculture sector.
Achieved Battle Victories.
The era of second caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) is full of victories. He conquered many countries during his period. The caliph conquered Sham (Syria) and Egypt during his era. Some of the famous victories have been described in the succeeding paragraphs:-
a) Iranian Victories.
Some problems and mutiny had taken place between Roman and Iranian governments during the period of first caliph Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA). Therefore, the second caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) gave full attention towards these problems. He prepared and send his Muslim army towards Iraq under the command of Hazrat Abu Obaida (RA) for support of Hazrat Masni Bin Haris (RA). On the other hand, the king of Iran send his two commanders Nermi and Jaban (names) to Iraq for participating in battle against Muslims. Brief history of some prominent battles are appended below:-
1) Mareka-e-Ghariq (the battle of Ghariq).
The army of Muslim commander Hazrat Abu Obaida (RA) fought with the army of Iranian commander Jaban in 643 CE at Gharaq (place). Commander Jaban fought bravely but lose the war. Muslim soldiers caught Jaban and put in prison. However, the Muslim soldiers could identified Jaban and released him in return of two slaves.
2) Jang-e-Kaskar (the battle of Kaskar).
The second Iranian commander Nermi concentrated his forces at Kaskar (place) for support of Jaban. Muslim commander Abu Obaida (RA) came to know about the army of Nermi. He led his army towards Kaskar and fought with Nermi. Abu Obaida (RA) defeated Iranian army there.
3) Jang-e-Haseer (the battle of Haseer).
In 634 CE, a battle fought between Muslims and Iranian armies on the planks of River Farat at Mardan Shah (place). Hazrat Abu Obaida (RA) was the young Muslim commander in this battle. He ignored the proposals/ suggestions of his experienced senior Generals and made a bridge over River Farat. The young commander crossed the river and attacked on Iranian forces. The Iranian army used elephants in this battle. The horses of Muslim army afraid of Iranian elephants and the Muslims could not fought with full force.
The commander Abu Obaida (RA) injured in this battle and panic took place amongst the Muslim army. The Muslim soldiers left the fettle field and ran away. When, Abu Obaida (RA) saw the Muslim soldiers, he cut down the ropes of the bridge in order to stop them from leaving the battle field. In this way, approximately six thousand soldiers drowned in the sea. Abu Obaida (RA) saved approximately three thousand soldiers. This bridge was made at Haseer (place). Therefore, this battle also named after this bridge.
4) Jang-e-Laweeb (the battle of Laweeb)
When Hazrat Umar (RA) came to know about the defeat of Muslims, he sent additional army for support of Abu Obaida Masni (RA) under the command of Hazrat Jareed Bin Abdullah (RA). Masni (RA) motivated his army for battle against Iranian. Iranian commander Ali send Mehran Hamdani on the direction of Queen Poran Dakhat. Both the forces were concentrated on the both sides of River Farat. When Iranian forces crossed the river, Masni (RA) attacked on them and killed Mehran.
5) Jang-e-Qadsia (the battle of Qadsia)
A lot of problems took place in Iran after the defeat in the battle Laweeb. Iranian people draw-down the government of Queen Azrmi Poran Dakhat and made her brother Yazd Gard Bayazdhard the king of Iran. Commander Rustam took the command of Iranian army. When Hazrat Umar (RA) came to known, he announced Jehad against Iranian. He invited senior companions Hazrat Talha, Zubair, Hazrat Abdul Rahman Bin Oaf to participate in this Jehad.
The second caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) deputed Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas (RA) as commander of Islamic army and send him towards Iran. The delegation of fourteen companions put three conditions to Yazd Gard before war i.e. Embrace Islam, pay Jezia (tax) to Muslims and the third condition was battle.
Yazd Gard accepted the third condition of war and send one hundred thousand army under the command of Commander Ali. Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas (RA) was suffering from illness during this war. However, he used to deliver his battle orders through Hazrat Khalid Bin Arqa (RA) to group commanders in the battlefield. Iranian army seriously resisted on the first day of battle. However, on the second day, Muslims army put black cloths on the faces of their camels and put them in the battlefield.
The elephants of Iranian army afraid of the camels and ran away. Commander Rustam also left the battlefield and ran away. A Muslim soldier Hilal caught Rustam and killed him. Hazrat Farara Bin Khattab (RA) snatched the Iranian holy flat Khash Kadyani from Iranian army. In this way, the Muslims conquered the battle.
6) Fatah-e-Madayan (the Victory of Madayan)
Iranian Kind Yazd Gard ran towards Halwan (place) after the victory of Madayan.
7) Jang-e-Jalweed (the battle of Jalweed).
This battle was fought in 637 CE. Hazrat Umar (RA) send Hashim Bin Utba (RA) along with twelve thousand army towards the castle of Iran and defeat them.
8) Capturing of Halwan (place).
The Muslim commanders pushed back Iranian army up till Halwan, Iraq. They occupied Halwan. Yazd Gard send Harmazan for fight with Muslim army. Harmazan lost the battle and surrendered to Muslims. He embraced Islam and gave the areas of Khoristan to Muslims. After the battle of Halwan, another intensive battle took place at Nehawand in 640 CE. Hazrat Luqman (RA) was the commander of Muslim army in this battle. He defeated Iranian at Mardan Shah. Yazd Gard ran away and king Khaqan took asylum in China. After this battle, the Muslims go ahead and captured Hamadan, Tibristan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Paris, Kerman, Sistine and Makran.
1) Cordoned Off of Damascus
Muslim commander Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) and Hazrat Abu Obaida (RA) cordoned off Damascus. Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) captured Damascus, but in the meanwhile Abu Obaida (RA) signed an agreement of peace with Damascus government before occupation. When Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) came to know, he returned the captured area to Damascus government according to the agreement.
2) Jang-e-Yarmook (the Battle of Yarmook).
The Muslim commander Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) shifted from Iraq to Damascus on the direction of second Caliph Hazrat Umar (RA). He joined the Muslim army on the bank of River Yarmook. The companions Abu Obaida (RA), Hazrat Umar Bin Eas (RA), Sharjeel Bin Hasna (RA) and Yazeed Bin Abu Sufyan (RA) have already reported there. They decided in a meeting to select one commander of whole Muslim army.
Similarly, Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) has been selected as commander of entire Muslim army there. Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) divided the Muslim army into thirty eight equal groups. Khalid Bin Waleed (RA) kept eighteen groups in the center and ten groups each on left and right sides. They fought with Iranian two hundred thousand army bravely and defeat them. One hundred thousand Iranian army soldiers were killed in this battle. King Harqol shifted to Rome after defeat.
3) The Egypt Conquer.
One part of Rome was the included in the territory of Egypt in 642 CE and its governor was Maqooqas. Hazrat Umro Bin Eas (RA) sought permission of attack on Rome from second Caliph Hazrat Umar (RA). The Caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) permitted him. Hazrat Umro Bin Eas (RA) advanced towards Egypt with four thousand army. Hazrat Omar (RA) sent ten thousand army under the command of Hazrat Zubair in support of Hazrat Umro Bin Eas (RA). Maqooqas remained in his castle for seven month. At last, Maqooqas surrendered to Muslim army. In this way, Egypt came under the rule of Caliph Hazrat Umar (RA).
4) Attack on Sikandaria.
When Qaiser-e-Rome came to know about the defeat Egypt. He send huge army towards Egypt via sea. Hazrat Umro Bin Eas (RA) cordoned off Sikandaria for many days. At last, the people of Sikandaria promised for Jezia (tax) and the Muslim returned.