Introduction of Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA)
Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) was a prominent and most rich companion of Holy prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAW). He was born in 573 AD in a noble family of Arab “Bani Umayya”. His father name was Affan Bin Aas and mother name was Arwa. Hazrat Usman Ghani Bin Affan (RA) was the third caliph of Muslims. He remained the caliph of Muslims from 644 AD to 656 AD. Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) died on 17 June 656 AD (18 Zel Hajj 35 AH)
Reasons behind Appointment.
The enemies of second caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) were afraid from his achievements. They created a lot of problems for him. In this way, instability increased in the country. When, Hazrat Umar (RA) came to know about the plans of the enemies, he decided to depute another caliph in his place. He gathered some senior and competent companions for selection of the third caliph. Hazrat Umar (RA) constituted a selection committee for this purpose. The members of committee comprised of Hazrat Abdul Rahman Bin Aof (RA), Hazrat Talha (RA), Hazrat Zubair (RA), Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) and Hazrat Saad Bin Abi Waqas (RA). Hazrat Umar (RA) told the committee to cast their votes for selection of next caliph. The companion who will earn the maximum votes will be the next caliph of Muslims.
When the second caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) passed away, the companions gathered on the third day of his death. The companions cast their votes according to the advice of Hazrat Umar (RA). In this way, they selected Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) as third caliph of Muslims.
Achievements of third Caliph Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA).
The third caliph Hazrat Usman (RA) was the very talented and good administrator. He organized the Muslims tactfully after the death of Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA). The third caliph made many reforms for betterment of Muslims. Some of his achievements are as under:-
1) Collection and Editing of Holy Quran
There were different accents of Arabic language in the Arab world. The Holy
Quran was also read in different accents according to local languages. Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) thought that these accents can cause wrong pronunciation of Holy Quran in future. Therefore, he collected all copies of holy Quran, which were prepared in the era of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA). He destroyed all these copies of Holy Quran and made a fresh copy of Holy Quran in the presence of Muslim scholars. Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) ordered to read the Holy Quran in one accent. He sent fresh copies to all provincial governments.
2) Economic Reforms
The third caliph Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) made many reforms in the economic system of Muslims and strengthened their economy. He further prolonged the government treasury programme of Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA). Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) worked day and night for the success of this programme without any salary. Dutiful and well reputed officers were deputed on this programme for betterment of his people. He donated his salary and other income for the welfare of his people.
3) Reforms in Defence Sector.
Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) brought important reforms in defence sector. He constructed many cantonments for defence force all across the states of his dynasty. Usman Ghani (RA) considerably increased the monthly salary and other allowances of soldiers. He enrolled soldiers from all tribes of far flung areas and provided high quality horses to them.
4) Provision of First Naval Ship.
Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) provided the first naval ship to Governor of Syria on request of Hazrat Ameer Mavia. In this way, the Muslim army acquired naval superiority at first time in the history. The Muslim army defeated Syrian army with the help of these sea war tactics. The third caliph established the factories of ships in the coastal areas of Egypt and Syria.
5) Religious Services.
Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) constructed many mosques in the country and provided water to these mosques. He deputed a Moazzan for offering Azan in these mosques. Moreover, he extended Masjid-e-Nabvi and Masjid-e-Haram and decorated these mosques with colorful and precious stones.
6) Welfare Projects.
Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) launched many welfare projects in his period, which inculude constructed buildings, roads, bridges, well and Inns.
The third caliph achieved many battle victories in his first six years of government. He extended the borders of his country to China, Iran and Subcontinent. Usman Bin Affan (RA) also conquered Tarabulus (Tripoli), Tunas, Marrakesh and Aljazeera in Northern Africa countries during his period. The island of Cyprus, Kabul and Ghazni (presently in Afghanistan) also came under the Muslim government in his period. Some famous battle victories have been described in the succeeding paragraphs:-
1) Occupation of Skandaria (Place) Durbar.
A large number of Romans were living in Skandaria (place) but they were suppressed from Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA). When Hazrat Umar (RA) passed away, the Qaiser-e-Rome incited these Romans against the government of third Caliph Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA). These Romans created mutiny in the country. However, the commander of third caliph Hazrat Umro Bin Abi Waqas defeated them and occupied again the Skandaria. The Romans got heavy losses in this war because the tribal did not support them in this war.
2) Rise of Mutiny in Northern Provinces.
Some people in the provinces of Armenia and Azerbaijan created mutiny against government after the death of Hazrat Umar (RA). When Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) came to know, he sent Hazrat Waleed Bin Uqba (RA) to tackle the mutiny. Hazrat Waleed Bin Uqba (RA) tactfully tackled the situation there and ensured peace in these provinces.
3) Occupation on Tarabulus (Tripoli).
Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) deputed Abdullah Bin Sarah as governor of Egypt in place of Hazrat Umar Bin Alghas (RA). Abdullah Bin Sarah was young, intelligent and bravo general. He attacked on northern Africa. Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) sent Hazrat Ibn-e-Zubair towards northern Africa for support of Abdullah there. They carried out multiple attacks on Tripoli. The king of Tripoli Zarbeer did not defend his country and surrendered to Abdullah (RA). He made a peace treaty with Abdullah and promised for paying of twenty five hundred Dhamam annually to Abdullah (RA).
4) Occupation on Island of Qabrus (Cyprus).
The Island of Qabrus (Cyprus) is situated on the bank of Syria. Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA) was against the sea warfare, therefore, he did not allow battle against the rebels of Cyprus in his period. When Ameer Mavia (RA) deputed governor of Syria after the death of Hazrat Umar (RA). He sought permission of battle against these rebels from Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA). Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) permitted Ameer Mavia to fight against the rebels of Cyprus.
Ameer Mavia prepared a strong ship and attacked on rebels and defeated them. The rebels made a peace treaty with Ameer Mavia and promised for paying seven hundred Dhamam. Later on, the people of Cyprus broke this treaty and refused to pay the amount to Ameer Mavia. When Ameer Mavia came to know about the violation of treaty, he again attacked on them and occupied the island of Cyprus. Then, he attacked on Iran and Paris and occupied these countries.
Abdullah Bin Amir attacked on Neharistan and Kerman and defeated these countries. In this way, he advanced towards Ghazni and Kabul (now in Afghanistan) and occupied these countries. The Muslim conquerors reached to the borders of Hindustan (India) in those days.