Selection Process of First Caliph Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (R.A)
When the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) passed away, the Muslims faced a lot of problems in selection of first caliph. In the meanwhile, several young individuals of Ansar (the supporters of refugees) gathered at Saqeefa Bano Saedo (place) for selection of first caliph. Ansars used to gather in this place for meetings and solving of tribal problems. Selection of first caliph was one of the major problem of Muslims. If the senior companions did not concentrate on this issue, then it will create a lot of problems for Muslims. Therefore, the senior companions also reached there and took part in the dialogue of Ansars. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) addressed the people and said “Arab tribal will not accept the leadership of other than Quresh tribe. Another companion Hazrat Habbab Bin Almanzar suggested two names, one each from Ansar (supporter) and Mohajir (migrant) but it was not possible.
Hazrat Abu Obaida said, “It is a universal truth that Ansars have a lot of services for Muslims. They have the highest position in Islam for their services”. Abu Obaida (RA) asked the Ansars whether they want to become high in destruction of Islam.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) addressed the gathering and said, “Umar (RA) and Abu Obaida (RA) are present here, therefore, select one of them as your first caliph according to your aspirations. Hazrat Umar (RA) replied that no one is best choice nor eligible for caliph of Muslim in presence of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA). He gave vote for selection of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA). The gathered people followed Hazrat Umar (RA) and gave vote for selection of Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) except Hazrat Saad Bin Ebada (RA).
Taking of Oath.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) addressed the people on the second day of his selection. He expressed his views in a public sermon as follows:-
a) I never pray nor wished to become caliph of Muslims.
b) Abu Bakr accepted these responsibilities for unity and welfare of Muslims community.
A number of problems raised when Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) took the charge. Many people left the religion Islam. The people, who claimed prophet-hood increased their activities against Muslims and Islam. Many people refused to pay Zakat (Islamic tax) to government. Some tribes planned to attack on Madina city. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) faced all these problems bravely. Despite of these problems, he decided to start his duties in continuation of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) re-organized the forces of Holy prophet (SAW). He decided to send the force towards the target under the command of companion Hazrat Osama Bin Zaid. Many companions including Hazrat Umar (RA) opposed the idea, but he disagreed with the proposal. Osama Bin Zaid (RA) completed the adventure in sixty days and returned successful. After successful adventure, all the companions praised the ability and foresight of first caliph.
Operation against Godless People.
Some people of Bani Eais and Bani Zebian tribes (both are names of Arab tribes) demanded to excuse the Zakat. In this way, these tribes also demanded reduction in the quantity of prayers. Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) strictly condemned their demand and took timely action against them. He announced war against these tribes and imposed both on them according to Islamic rules. The Godless people attacked on Madina city in retaliation but in vain.
False Claimers of Prophet-hood.
Some Godless people were jealous to the achievements of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) during His life time. When the Holy Prophet (SAW) passed away, some of these jealous people claimed false prophet-hood. These people propagated the need of separate prophet for each tribe. Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) organized an advisory campaign for these people to leave the false claim and rejoin Islam. He also activated his force against them in eleven groups and defeat them. Some of the prominent falsifiers / liars are as follows:-
a) Aswad Ansi (name).
He hails from Ansi tribe of Yaman, who claimed prophet-hood in the life period of Holy Prophet (SAW). Aswar Ansi was killed by his follower Feroze in the darkness of night.
b) Taleeha Asadi (name).
Hails from Bano Asad tribe, who left Islam in the life of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Taleeha Asadi along with some groups of Bani Israel claimed prophet-hood. Abu Bakr (RA) send Khalid Bin Walid towards him, who defeated him at Meezakhas (place). Unfortunately, Taleeha escaped and shifted to Sham (Syria) along with his family. Taleeha again embraced Islam in the era of second caliph Umar (ARA).
c) Mosleema Kazzab.
He belongs to Bani Hanifa tribe of central Arab. Mosleema Kazzab insurrected in Yamama and claimed prophet-hood. He married with a lair lady. A renowned companion Ameer Hamza killed him in the battle of Yamama.
d) Sabah Bent-e-Haris.
She was a Christian lady. Khalid Bin Walid fought a battle with her force and defeat them. Sabah Bent-e-Haris embraced Islam after defeat.
e) Salma Bent-e-Malik.
She was a prisoner of war in the custody of Holy Prophet (SAW). Later, Hazrat Ayesha (RA) released her. Salma left Islam after her release. Khalid Bin Walid killed her in a battle.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) bravely faced these problems and defeat the mutinies completely in his time.
Stability of Government.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) was a tactful and able companion. He strengthened the government of Madina with his vision and diplomacy.
Zakat (Islamic Tax) System.
Malkol-Bin-Naweera was leading some Muslim countries, who refused to pay Zakat. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) timely intervene the matter and save the holy Islamic tax system. He strengthened the Zakat system and implemented it all across the Muslim countries.
Accumulation of Quran in Written form.
Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) has prepared standard copies of Quran and send it to all provincial headquarters. Many Huffaz (learner of Quran by heart) were embraced Shahadat in the war against Mosleema Kazzab. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) thought to make the copies of Quran for learning without a Hafiz. Therefore, he gave written form to Quran. He also introduced mutual advisory system of his cabinet.