Brief History of Persian Poet Hakeem Omar Khayyam

Introduction of Omar Khayyam

          Abu Fatah Omar Khayyam Bin Ibrahim Nishapuri was born in Nishapur in year 401 AH or 408 AH and died in 526 AH. He was great Persian poet, scholar and mathematician. Abu Fatah has also unparalleled knowledge of astrology. His poetry and knowledge was praised in Europe apart from Iran.

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omar khayyam

Epistemic Superiority over other Poets.

          Omar Khayyam Nishapuri became famous in the world due to his deep thoughts in poetry. Moreover, he was also a great philosopher like Abu Ali Siena and abundant religious teacher. Nishapuri was also a renowned astrologist. The kings used to hire the services of Abu Fateh for making forecasts and predictions of important events of the kingdom. Once, King Malik Shah ordered Nishapuri to make three days visit programme in clear weather i.e. without snowfall and rainfall. Nishapuri suggested a particular day for the visit of King Malik Shah. On the first day of the visit, the weather suddenly became cloudy. The people in Durbar (office) of King Malik Shah laughed at him but Nishapuri stand on his prediction and told the king for clearing of weather in few minutes. The weather became clear after few minutes and everyone in the office praised him.

          Baheeqi (a historian) says that Omar Khayyam was the family Hakeem (doctor) of King Malik Shah. Once, the son of King Malik Shall fall ill and suffered from smallpox. Omar gave him medical treatment and the son of king became healthy.

Omar Khayam


          Omar followed the philosophy of liberalism in his life and opposed religious extremism. He criticized religious extremism / Mullaism in his poetry. Religious community also strongly opposed him for his liberal ideology in those days

Publications / Books.

          According to Encyclopedia of Islam, Khayyam was mathematician. He wrote a book “Jabar-wa-Maqala” (a Mathematics theory) in Arabic language, which is now-a-days present in Leaden (University in London). The “Jabar-wa-Maqala” was translated into many languages. According to Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu Fateh wrote following books:-


1)         Resala Estikhraj-e-Azla Murabat wa Kulyat.

2)         Resala Jabar-wa-Maqala.

3)         Zeach Malik Shahi.

Omer Khayyam

4)         Resala Sharaha-e-Ashkal Masaderat.

5)         Resala Mokhtasar Dar Tabiyat.

6)         Meezan-ul-Hakam

7)         Resala Sakoon wal Takleef

8)         Resala Mauzoo-e-Elam kol Moujood

9)         Royayat-e-Khayyam.

10)      Resala Fi Kolyat-e-Wajood

11)      Resala Aosafha Resala Wajood

12)      Ghazayas-ul-Tefayias.

13)      Nouroz Nama.

14)      Baegh Arab Ashghar

15)      Makalabat-e-Khayyam Farsi.

Omer Khayyam

Source of Fame.

          Omar Khayyam was a great scholar, Hakeem (doctor), astrologist, palmist, poet and religious scholar, however, Persian poetry (Persian quatrains) became the source of his fame in the world. European scholars have played a vital role for his publicity. Russian professor Waltine Zokofiski has translated the Robayat (Quatrains) of Khayyam at the first time. Finer Jearold has also translated these Quatrains in English language.

Robayat-e-Khayyam (Quatrains of Khayyam).

          Poetry was the hobby of Khayyam. As we discussed earlier, Omar was a mathematician, philosopher, physician, astrologist and palmist. He always remained busy in research and study of world, its origin and end. When he became tired in research then he used to write poetry for refreshment. His most favorite subject was Quatrains in the poetry. He has used simple language in Quatrains for ease of readers. Omar Khayyam wrote quatrains on the life of human beings. He says, life is too short and no one know the date of his end. Everyone knows this reality but struggle is the only hope which gives us confidence to discover it in this short time.

omar khayyam

          The unawareness from the end of life makes human being more sensitive for its research. Omar says, Soqrat (Socrates), Aflatoon (Plato), Arasto (Aristotle), Razi and Maulana Rome have struggled for it. Everyone wants to know about the sky, its origin and reason of creation of human beings but no one have find the answer. These reasons puts the human in struggle.

Sensitive Nature.

          The poet had a sensitive nature. He wanted to explore the origin and end of this world but when he fails in his efforts, he returned to the nature. Abu Fatah used to start poetry in the state of anxiety for refreshment. He has used sky, clouds, nature, rain and other natural happenings in his poems. The philosopher poet knows the reality of life. He says life is full of problems and everyone are facing a lot of difficulties in his life.

Omer Khayyam

Force Theory.

          Omar Khayyam Nishapuri followed force theory in his life. He says human is helpless and dependent on dole and doom in his life. Omar further says, if a happy moment comes in life, then a sad moment replaces it immediately. The world is like a prison and the life is like a chess game which is being played from the sky. The philosopher poet advises us to spend the life happily because it is too short.

Exultation Ideology.

          Omar spent his life happily and also advised the people to remain happy in life. His poetry is a bright example of exultation theory. He was a deep drunker and described wine in poetry everywhere.

Age of Juvenile / Bloomy.

          Omer Khayyam was unhappy over the less time period of Juvenile / young age. He says, the time of young age in life is the time of enjoyment for everyone, but unfortunately it is too short. The Persian poet always expressed sorrow over the short time span of young age period in his poetry.

omar khayyam

Mortality / Evanescent of World.

          The Persian poet was very sad over the mortality / evanescent of this world. He says, human is mortal and every glitter things in this world will finish soon, which is painful. Abu Fatah further says, king, rich, Lazarus, poor, scholar and illiterate will go under the ground in an equal way. He ever expressed his sorrow over the mortality of this beautiful world.

Sincere and Opened-heart Personality.

         Omar Khayyam was very sincere, loyal and opened-heart with everyone. He was very expressive in his views and opinions. The Persian poet dislikes hypocrite people and always criticized them in his poetry. He never supported artificial and insincere people.

Moral Lesson in Poetry.

          Abu Fatah has stressed upon moral values of human in his poetry. His poetry is full of moral lessons. He preached for speaking truth and sincere dealing with each other at any cost.

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