King Sabugtageen fought against Simonids (nation) and defeat them. He took Ghazni (place in Afghanistan) from Simonids and maintained government there. In this way, Ghazni and Khorasan become under the kingdom of King Sabugtageen. He organized his forces after taking over the charge of Ghazni and moved them towards Hindustan. King Sabugtageen defeated Raja Jaipal at Peshawar and extended government of Khorasan up till Peshawar. In this time, Sultan Mahmood promoted Persian literature.
Taking Over of Sultan Mahmood Ghaznavi
Khalaf Bano was the grandson of Umro Lais and last king of Safarian family. Mahmood Ghaznavi fought against Khalaf Bano and snatched the kingdom from him. Sultan Mahmood was very talented, therefore, become popular among the people very soon. He became satisfied after victory and return to Ghazni. Sultan Mahmood conquered Bukhara and Samarqand in the next few years. He strengthened the government with his fighting efficiency and wisdom. Sultan Mahmood died in 1030 at Ghazni. Sabugtageen founded the Ghaznavid era, Sultan Mahmood take it to its peak and the incompetent successor Masood has eliminated it in Iran.
Rise of Persian Literature in Ghaznavid Era
Ghaznavid era was the bright time of Persian literature in the history. Persian poetry rose to its peak in this era. Shahnameh-e-Ferdowsi is a valuable product of Ghaznavid era. Ghaznavid era also known as Shahnameh-e-Ferdowsi era.
Sultan Mahmood has eminent personality and also liked scholars and eminent. He wrote a comprehensive book on the jurisprudence of Islamic law. He built a glorious Madrassa (learning institution) and great library of rare books during his period of governing. Mahmood spent a lot of money on the promotion of knowledge, that is why, the scholars and eminent loved his and dragged there.
Sultan Mahmood was the Kidnapper of Scholars
Professor writes that Sultan Mahmood was the kidnapper of scholars. Sultan Mahmood invited scholars and eminent to his office from all over the world. Once, Mahmood come to know about the scholars in the office of King Mamoon-bin-Mamoon. He requested King Mamoon to send all these scholars to his office. King Mamoon afraid and ordered all the scholars to leave his office and join the office of Sultan Mahmood in Iraq. Abu Rehan Alberoni, Abu al Hassan Khomar and Abu Naseer Iraq joined the office of Sultan Mahmood in Khawarzam at Iraq immediately, whereas Ibn-e-Sina and Abu Sohail Masih Ghazni refused to join the office of Sultan Mahmood in Iraq. Both the scholars left the office of King Mamoon and started journey towards Khawarzam (place in Iraq). On the way, a strong tornado caught them and Abu Sohail Masih Ghazni died there, however, Ibn-e-Sina escaped.
When Sultan Mahmood came to know about hiding Ibn-e-Sina, he become angry and order to produce Ibn-e-Sina in his front at any cost. King Qaboos kept Ibn-e-Sina in his office instead of sending towards Sultan Mahmood. He also gave a lot of respect to Ibn-e-Sina and made him minister in his territory. Ibne-e-Sina started work with King Qaboos happily and wrote the great philosophy book “SHIFA” there.
Support of Persian Literature
Persian literature developed in Ghaznavid era because Sultan Mahmood’s support and supervision. Children and ministers of Sultan Mahmood also loved poets and scholars and encouraged them with prize and awards. Sultan Mahmood spent his most of life in battles and wars. Therefore, he wanted to motivate the general public for battles and wars. In this way, poets played a vital role in motivation of general public.
Golden Period of Persian Literature
Ghaznavid era was the golden period of Persian literature. Shahnam-e-Ferdowsi was one of the masterpiece of that period. Ferdowsi kept the history alive through his renowned book. He was the greatest Persian poet.
The time of Persian Poet’s Fame
Ghaznavid era was the golden time for Persian poets in general and Ferdowsi in particular. The era produced number of great and intelligent poets in which Ferdowsi was the most popular and prominent poet. Ansari and Farokhi are the next popular poets of that time. Their QASEEDA (poetry story) have great importance in the history of Persian literature and poetry. Persian poet Balkhi started Qaseeda, Daqeeqi perused it and Ferdowsi reached it to perfection.
Poetry of Ghaznavid Era
Following are some of the popular poetry books of Ghaznavid era:-
- Qaseed-e-Ansari. This included 180 x Couplets. Approximately, all battles of Ghaznavid era have been explained in these couplets.
- Nowsherawan Ka Naseehat Nama. Persian classical poet Balkhi has written this poetry.
- Loghat-e-Farsi. Poet Assad Tosi edited this book.
Some of the prominent Persian poets of Ghaznavid era are as under:-
- Abul Qasim Ferdowsi
- Asad Tosi
- Mano Chehri