Introduction of Fourth Caliph Hazrat Ali (RA).
Hazrat Ali (RA) was the fourth caliph of Muslims and real cousin of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). He was also close companion and bravo Muslim. His full name is Ali Bin Abi Talib bin Abdul Mutalib Bin Hashem Bin Abdul Manaaf. He was also known as Abu Turab, Abu al Hassan and Haider. His mother name was Fatima Bent-e-Asad and father was Abu Talib, who was the real uncle of our Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W). He was born in 6 AD. Hazrat Ali (RA) was the first ever child who accepted Islam.
Hazrat Ali (RA) ruled over the Muslims for five years. His five years ruling period is full of rise and fall. Therefore, he did not focus completely on the matters of his dynasty. However, he never showed carelessness in his duty. He followed the way and procedure of Hazrat Umar (RA) in the field of administration.
Moral Training of Muslim Army.
The fourth caliph Hazrat Ali (RA) stressed on the moral training of his army. He used to forgive the defeated people of war. Hazrat Ali (RA) strictly forbidden his army from war crimes and brutality. He has given clear instructions to well treat women and children in the war.
Reforms in Judiciary System.
Hazrat Ali (RA) liked justice and used to kept justice among the public. He made many reforms in the Judiciary system for quick justice to public. The fourth Caliph (RA) gave autonomous status to judiciary in his government. The judges were kept free from political pressure. He sat self-examples in justice. Once a Jewish individual stole the Zara (war instrument) of Caliph Ali (RA). The caliph launched the theft case in the court against him. He produced his son Hazrat Imam Hassan (RA) as witness in the case. The Qazi (judge) decided the case against him with the reason that a son cannot be a witness of father. Hazrat Ali (RA) accepted the decision of judge happily. The decision of caliph impressed the Jewish individual and he embraced Islam.
Equal Accountability Bureau.
Hazrat Ali (RA) believed on equal accountability. He sat several example of accountability in his time. Once, he severely warned his servant on the complaint of a woman. In another case, The fourth caliph (RA) suspended his cousin Abdullah Bin Abbas over the extra expenditures of government treasury. He also suspended a great commander Ashghat Bin Qais during Jang-e-Safain (battle of Safain) over a public complaint.
Accurate Use of Government Funds.
Hazrat Ali (RA) was very careful in use of government funds. He always stressed upon the accurate use of government funds. The fourth caliph (RA) used to get very less salary from the government treasury. Once, his brother intended to get loan from government treasury. He regretted his application being not eligible for loan.
Change of Capital.
Hazrat Ali (RA) changed the capital of Islamic states from Madina to Kofa. This decision was taken for easy implementation of administrative orders. However, some disloyal people created problems for his government there. In this way, disparity of Muslims began from there. The Muslims divided into many groups. Hazrat Ali (RA) handled these problems efficiently.
Achievements of Hazrat Ali (RA).
Hazrat Ali (RA) was one of the most talented caliph and bravo companion of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). He has many achievements and bravery acts. Some are being explained in the succeeding paragraphs:-
a. Hazrat Ali (RA) was well aware of all bravery acts of Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW). When the Holy prophet announced prophet-hood, Hazrat Ali (RA) testified His claim and embraced Islam. He was the first ever Muslim child in the history of Islam.
b. The fourth caliph (RA) participated in numerous battles against the enemies of Islam. He fought all these battles bravely. The caliph killed Waleed Bin Utah in Jang-e-Badar (battle of Badar). He also killed notorious Jewish wrestler “Umaro Bin Abdud” in Jang-e-Khandaq (Trench Battle).
c. Hazrat Ali (RA) remained a special member in the advisory committee of previous caliphs of Islam. His advices were given sound importance in all matters.
d. The fourth caliph (RA) followed the rules and regulations of second caliph Hazrat Umar (RA) during his time. He disliked publicity and used to ignore the work of fame. The fourth caliph strengthened the democracy with his unique style. He ever considered the government treasury as public property and expended it carefully for public welfare. The fourth caliph never got undue favor from any one.
When he took the charge of government, unfortunately, he faced many problems. During this period, he met with mutiny of Ameer Mavia and Umro Bin Alghais. Therefore, he spent his maximum time in rectification of these problems. He lost the province of Egypt on these problems. Although his government was not so successful, however, the Muslims will respect him and his family for ever on his outstanding character and manners.
Jang-e-Safain (The battle of Safain).
Hazrat Ali (RA) took many bold decisions just after taking the government. He dismissed many governors of Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) and replaced them with new governors. The governor of Syria Hazrat Ameer Mavia (RA) was also among the dismissed governors. He disobeyed the orders of Hazrat Ali (RA) and refused to leave the seat of governor. Hazrat Ameer Mavia (RA) gathered the people in a mosque and showed them the clothes of Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA). He also showed the cut fingers of Hazrat Naiyela (RA) to people. In this way, he impressed the crowed. These problems caused severe uprising in the country.
Jang-e-Jamal (The battle of Jamal).
When Hazrat Ali (RA) came to know about the mutiny, he rushed towards Syria for attack on Hazrat Ameer Mavia (RA). In the meanwhile, Hazrat Ayesha (RA) also led her army towards Basra (place) for attack. When, Hazrat Ali (RA) came to know, he turned his army towards Basra.
Battle against Khareji (Hypocrite).
A number of associates opposed The fourth caliph Hazrat Ali (RA) over the treaty of Safain Battle. In this way, problems among The fourth caliph (RA) and his associates increased. They started campaign for killing Hazrat Ali (RA) and Hazrat Ameer Mavia (RA). The fourth caliph tried to solve the problem through negotiation but they did not agreed. At last, he fought against the hypocrite associates and defeat them at Neharwan (place).
Reforms in Police Department.
The fourth caliph increased his army and made several cantonments for them. He also increased the strength of policemen and made many reforms in the police department. These police were called Ashurta and their head was called Sahib-e-Ashurta. The Ashurtas were deputed on maintaining law and order situation, investigation and control of crimes and security of trade centers.
Bravery Acts of Fourth Caliph Hazrat Ali (RA).
Hazrat Ali (RA) has the honor of participation in all Ghazwat (battles). Ghazwat means “the battle in which the Holy Prophet (SAW) participated himself”. Some of his brave acts have been explained in the succeeding paragraphs:-
The Battle of Badar.
Hazrat Ali (RA) stood shoulder-by-shoulder with Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) during every hardship. He participated in many Ghazwat (battles) and showed his bravery and loyalty with the Holy Prophet (SAW). The Holy Prophet (SAW) selected three bravo companions for battle of Badar (the first battle of Islam) from Bani Hashim tribe. Hazrat Ali (RA) was also selected among Hazrat Hamza (RA) and Hazrat Obaida (RA) for battle of Badar. In this battle, he killed the notorious enemy of Islam Waleed in a moment.
The Battle of Ohad.
The Muslims apparently defeated in first phase of battle Ohad. The Holy Prophet (SAW) suffered injuries in this battle. Hazrat Ali (RA) looked after Him during this battle. He gave first aid treatment to Holy Prophet (SAW).
The Battle of Khyber.
Nonbelievers have occupied the Khyber fort since long. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) told the companions before the battle of Khyber that He will hand over the flag of fort to a brave companion tomorrow. On the next day, Hazrat Ali (RA) fought bravely and conquered the Khyber fort. He took the flag of Khyber fort from the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) after the successful battle.