Hafiz Muhammad Shamas Uddin alias Hafiz Shirazi hails from Shiraz, Iran. His date of birth is not clear in the history. He was probably born between 724 AH to 729 AH. His father name was Bahauddin, who was a merchant in Isfahan, Iran.
Early Childhood of Hafiz Shirazi.
Father of Hafiz Shirazi passed away in his childhood. Elder brothers left him and his mother alone. These were the hard days of Hafiz Muhammad Shamas Uddin. There were nothing for earning livelihood with him. He started work with a bread maker. Although, he was busy in his work, but he was fond of knowledge. He started school in part-time. In this way, Hafiz Shirazi learned Holy Quran by heart. He also learned Translation of Holy Quran and then allopathic knowledge gradually.
Era of Hafiz.
Hafiz Shirazi was religious person. He was also known as Khawaja Sahib Unfortunately, he was born in the era of insurgencies and revolutions. However, a lot of religious scholars, eminent, Sufi and poets also present there. He was the most prominent scholar of the era. His poems were very effective. He taught the people to speak truth.
Honest, Sincere and Gentleman.
Hafiz Muhammad Shamas Uddin was honest, sincere and gentleman. He always speaks truth. Shamam Uddin has sympathy with King Abu Ishaq. He wrote a lot of poems in the favor of Abu Ishaq when he was removed from government. Similarly, he criticized many Iranian kings in his poetry. Shirazi also wrote a lot of epodes in honor of King Shah Shuja. King Shah Shuja was sensible king. Shah Shuja left all restrictions on public expression which was imposed by his father.
Sensitive Nature / Temperament.
Hafiz Shirazi had sensitive nature, who impressed from environment. He never praised kings and ministers unnecessarily. The said Persian poet always criticized kings and ministers of his era and indicated their weaknesses and immoralities. Shamas Uddin knows the selfishness of the ministers and pointed them it in his poetry.
Bold and Bravo.
In those days, everyone were hypocrite and insincere with each other. Even, Eminent, scholars, judge and everyone were canter and insincere. The people of all groups and factions were apparently religious and good but infect they were hypocrite and insincere. Hafiz indicated such type of people in his poetry.
Polite and Peaceful.
Shamas Uddin was polite and peaceful. He advised the people to live with peace and harmony. Hafiz Shirazi always counselled the people for friendship and good relations with each other. The theme of his poetry is good manners and sincerity.
Love with Shiraz.
Hafiz Shirazi loved with his home town Shiraz. He never left Shiraz for long time. Once, the king of Iran Sultan Ahmad Jalayier invited him for visit to Baghdad city but Shirazi refused to visit there. Similarly, governor of Dakan Sultan Mahmood Shah Bahemni invited him for visit to Dakan. The governor also send important baggage of journey towards Hafiz. Hafiz agreed for visit to Dakan but when he sat in the ship and saw towards the sea, he left the idea of visit and returned to home. He wrote a Ghazal (ode / madrigal) and send it towards the governor. Hafiz spent his complete life in his home town Rakanabad.
Muhammad Shamas Uddin died in 971 AH / 1338 AD. He was buried in his beloved town Mosali, Rakanabad, Shiraz.
Publications of Hafiz Shirazi.
The most prominent book of Hafiz Shirazi is Divan-e-Hafiz. The book comprises of Ghazal (ode / madrigals) and quatrains. Gul Muhammad Andam was the student and best friend of Hafiz, who has composed this book.
Characteristics of Hafiz’s Poetry.
The poetry of Hafiz Shirazi has a lot of distinctive parameters. Usually, a poet writes one or two interesting couplets in an ode, whereas the whole of Hafiz is interesting and remarkable. This poet has expressed his views and emotions in a befitting way. Hafiz advised the people for good manners and good deeds. His poetry is interesting and effects on the heart of the readers. Some of the important topics are appended below:-
- Hope and Courage. One of the most prominent specialty of Hafiz poetry is lesson of hope and courage. Usually, we have observed grief and sorrow in the poetry of Iranian poets. They were unsatisfied from past and hopeless from future. Their lives were full of disappointment and failure but the poetry of Shirazi gives hope and courage to young generation.
- Struggle. According to Hafiz Shirazi, struggle for knowledge is one of the important factor for better future. Struggle and knowledge can make everything possible.
- Freedom. Hafiz was an open-hearted poet who liked freedom. He loved the people but never praised the kings and rulers. There were instability in Iran in the last days of Zafar’s government. The government machinery was weak. It was the days of intense civ war in Iran. There were lack of food and basic necessities. The law and order situation was worsen. Hafiz also affected from the condition of Iran. He wrote some odes in this condition for his satisfaction.
- Narratives of Alcohol in Poetry. According to Hafiz, alcohol is one of the best thing by which we can get rid of grief and sorrow. He says, we may not drink for suspension of life.
Shahenshah-e-Ghazal (king of Ode).
Khawaja Sahib took the Ghazal to its peak. He used extremely soft and proper language in his odes. His odes give complete satisfaction to the readers. Sheikh Saadi is also one of the best Ghazal writer of the Persian poetry, however, Hafiz Shirazi is considered as Shahenshah-e-Ghazal (king of ode). He has unparalleled control over the topic of Ghazal. The renowned Persian scholar Maulana Jami has named him as Lesan-ul-Ghaib (language of nature) and Trajuman-u-Israr (interpreter of nature).
Liked by Everyone.
Divan-e-Hafiz is a combination all type of poetry. Specially, Ghazal on every topic are available in this book. Every couplet of each Ghazal is unique from top to bottom. Everyone read their own choice from it. This book is best friend of everyone. It gives satisfaction to people of every age and class. Shamas Uddin took Persian poetry to highest peak in Iran. His poetry is equally popular in East and West. German poet Goetey followed him and wrote odes in the style of Shirazi.
Style of Odes.
Hafiz Shirazi wrote odes in the style of Khawaja Karmani. He created a lot of emotions in the Ghazal. Shirazi followed Sabok-e-Iraqi (Iraq style of poetry) in the poetry.