Introduction of Last Address (Hujja Tul Weda).
Hujja Tul Weda means The Farewell Sermon or last address of Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). The holy Prophet of Allah address the people in the valley of Arafat on the 9th of Zel Hajj (last month of Islamic year). It is a historical Sermon and complete charter of life for human on the right path. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) has announced completion of Islam in this farewell sermon. He has given end to all type of discrimination in basic human rights. The human rights and responsibilities have been announced in this sermon.
Aim of the Farewell Sermon of Holy Prophet.
The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) came to Makkah for paying Hajj on the tenth year of migration. It was the last Hajj of Holy Prophet (S.A.W). He (S.A.W.) gave a historical address to all Muslims on the eve of Hajj. It is known the famous Hujja Tul Weda (The farewell Sermon of Holy Prophet). The Holy Prophet strongly condemned agnatic / ethnic and linguistic superiority of Muslims over each other. He also condemned discrete between the white people and black people everywhere. The merit of superiority in Islam is only piety (Taqwa) everywhere. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.) told that Muslims are brother of each other all over the world. Muslims are not allowed to kill or disgrace each other illegally in Islam.
Health Condition of Holy Prophet (SAW).
The health condition of holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) became worsen day by day, when He returned to Madina. In Madina, He (SAW) used to spend one night in each house of his wives alternately. In those days, His (S.A.W.) health condition became worsen at the home of his wife Mamoona Binte Haris. At last, it has been decided to bring the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) to the house of Hazrat Ayesha (R.A). Three days of departure of Holy soul, the illness of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) became more serious. He (S.A.W.) tried to go to mosque for preying prayer but could not go to mosque due to serious illness. Therefore, He (S.A.W.) nominated Hazrat Abu Bakkar Siddique (R.A.) to lead the prayer in mosque. Abu Bakkar Siddique (R.A.) selected as first caliphate on this reason.
Treaty between Ansar (Local supporters) and Mohajir (Migrants / Refugees).
Islamic government came into being after the Madina migration. The holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) announced an unparalleled treaty between Ansar and Mohajir. According to the treaty, every Ansar will look after a Mohajir (Migrant / Refugee) and also share his property with him. All the Ansar (Supporters) completely accepted the treaty and supported all Mohajir. In this way, all Mohajir became brothers of Ansar.
Important Points of Farewell Sermon.
The last address or farewell sermon of Holy Prophet (SAW) is a guideline for every Muslim all over the world. Important points of the farewell sermon have been explained in the succeeding paragraphs:-
1) Muslims have given a complete religion. It has the complete charter of life. Therefore, all customs / civilizations of the society before Islam have been strictly forbidden for Muslims.
2) The Holy Prophet (SAW) said, “Return all the goods to their owners, who entrusted their goods to you”. A Muslim is not allowed to use the goods and things of other Muslim without prior permission.
3) Islam has forbidden all type of usury (interest). The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) announced immediate waiving off of the interest of his cousin Abbas Bin Abdul Muttalib in His farewell sermon.
4) Prophet Muhammad (SAW) announced special rights for women and children in his farewell sermon. He (SAW) said “Your women have rights over you and you have rights over your wives”. Treat your wives with kindness and feed them good food and wear them good clothes. They (wives) will not keep any friend without prior permission of husband. Your wives will never broke your trust and never keep bad relation with anyone in absence of her husband.
5) O people! I am leaving two things among you. One thing is Quran and the other thing is Sunna. Hold both these things with full force, you will never stray / loose the right path.
6) Prophet Muhammad (SAW) stressed on justice between the seigneur (owner) and slave. He (SAW) said “Treat your slaves well and keep justice among them”. “Feed the slaves with the food which you eat and give them cloths which you wear yourself”.
7) O people listen to me! No prophet will come after me (Muhammad SAW) nor religion be born till the Day of Judgment.
8) Obey the rules of Almighty Allah and worship the only one Allah (God). Say prayers five time a day, fast during the month of Ramadan, give Zakat (Islamic tax) in your wealth and perform Hajj if you afford it.
9) O people! Follow my examples (Sunna), it will lead you towards Jannat (heaven).
10) The Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) told the people in His farewell sermon do not oppress yourselves and pass my words to other people. Others people shall pass it again to others.
Lesson of Farewell Sermon.
At the end of the last sermon, the Holy Prophet told the people, perhaps it will be my last sermon. Then, the Holy Prophet (SAW) looked towards the sky and said, O Allah be my witness, I have conveyed your message to your people. Then The Holy Prophet (SAW) looked towards the people and said, O people! Be witness that I have conveyed the message of Almighty Allah to you.