Rowdki was the most popular poet of Samyan era in Persian history. As per the statement of famous historian Abdul Karim Bin Muhammad Esmani, his complete name is Abu Abdullah Jafar Bin Muhammad Bin Hakeem Bin Abdul Rahman Bin Adam and Rowdki was his sur-name. He was born in a small village Banj, which is situated in Rowdak city of Samarqand. Abu Abdullah Jafar became famous in the word with the relation of this city. His date of birth is not mentioned in the history anywhere, however, the historians wrote his approximate date of birth. He died in 304 AH or 916 CE which probably incorrect.
Pin-picture of Rowdki
Abu Abdul Rahman Rowdki was very intelligent from childhood. He learned the holy Quran by heart when he was eight years old. Abu Abdul Rahman also learned the art of recitation of Holy Quran in the early age. Then, he started poetry and became a perfect Persian poet of Samayan era. Rowdki is also known as teacher of poets in the history. Almighty Allah has blessed him with a sweet and attractive voice. He started singing and playing Guitar. Abu Abdullah Jafar learned the knowledge of music from musician teachers Bareed and Nakeesa. Soon Abu Abdul Rahman became a good and popular musician. In this way, he got place in the office of King Ameer Nasar Bin Ahmad Samani. He used to play Guitar in his office.
Blind by Birth
Most of the Historians are in the opinion that Abu Abdul Rahman Jafar was blind by birth. Persian poet Muhammad Aofi declared Rodwki as blind by birth. However, some historians have narrated that Rowdki become blind in the later stage of life. There are many perception about his blindness. The poetry of Abu Abdul Rahman Jafar shows that he became blind in the later stage of life because he has used colours in his poetry.
Reasons behind Blindness of Abu Abdullah Jafar
Historians have stated following two reasons behind the blindness of Abu Abdullah Jafar Bin Muhammad:-
1) First Reason. Renowned Persian poet Agha Saeed Nafeesi writes that a warm stick was put in the eyes of Rowdki, which made his eyes blind. He did not produce a solid reason of his statement. However, Nafeesi explained his statement and said that Rowdki was suffering from eye disease “Khonsa”. Khonsa is an eye disease which reduces the eye sight gradually. The people used to put a warm stick for its remedial. In this way, a warm tick was put in the eyes of Abu Abdullah Jafar, however, some carelessness occurred in the process, which caused him blind
2) Second Reason. The historians also narrated a second reason of Rowdki’s blindness. Abu Fazal Balghami was serving in the office of King Ismail Bin Ahmad Samani, who was the best friend of Rowdki. When Islamil removed Abu Fazal from his office, Ismail also punished his closed associates and friends. It is also suspected that Ismail Bin Ahmad has put warm tick in the eyes of Abu Abdullah Jafar on this account and made him blind.
At the first time, Rawdki was appointed as poet in the office of King Nasar Bin Ahmad Samani. Although, Rowdki did not use the name of king Nasar Bin Ahmad in his poetry, however, the historians have narrated his presence in his office. Once, the king Nasar prolonged his stay at Herat (now in southern Afghanistan). The people requested Abu Abdullah Jafar to convince the king for return to home town. Rowdki wrote a poem in which he invited the attention of King Nasar towards the problems of people and the king returned to his palace soon. Abu Abdullah Jafar also wrote poems for Ameer Abu Jafar, who was the governor of Seestan (now in Iran).
Abu Abdullah Jafar is the classical Persian poet. Following are some of his fellow poets:-
- Shaheed Balkhi
- Ghairul Adi
- Abu Mesal Bokhamai
- Abu Abbas
- Abu Ishaq
- Abu Zaraga Gorgani
- Amara Marozi
Reason of Fame
A classic poetry, sweet voice and unparalleled control over the playing of guitar became the reason of Rowdki’s fame. It is generally considered that the name of Samanyan is live in the history due to the poetry of Rowdki. All great poets of Samanyan era have praised the poetry and art of Abu Abdullah Jafar.
Rowdki has a thoughtful heart and sensitive nature. He loved the people and feels their pain. Abu Abdullah Jafar advises the people in his poetry and says that circumstances of the world does remain the same, it changes from time to time. Therefore, we should not worry about it. Rowdki loves the world and its dividends but also advises the people for patience because world and human both are mortal.
When the son of his dearest friend Abu Fazal Balaghmi died, Rowdki wrote a poem in which he advised him for patience. He advises for taking benefit from the gifts of Almighty Allah in this world but never become proud of it because everyone had to leave it. Abu Abdullah Jafar enjoyed simple and straight forward life. He likes simple people and dislikes hypocrites.
Characteristics of Poetry
The great Persian poet Nizami Arozi Samarqandi says that the poetry of Rowdki very effective. It effects on the heart of the readers. Nizami further narrated that once king Nasar Bin Ahmad Samani prolonged his stay during summer season at Hera. The people became upset there. They gave five thousand Dinar to Abu Abdullah Jafar and requested him to convince King for return to home town. Abu Abdullah Jafar wrote a poem and sang it in rhyme “OSHAQ” for King Nasar. When Abu Abdullah Jafar sang the last word of the poem, the king agreed and return to palace. It was the characteristics of his poetry.
Persian poet Muhammad Aofi says that Rowdi has written one hundred books of poetry. Perhaps, the quote of Muhammad Aofi might be right because Abu Abdullah Jafar was very rich poem writer. The historians narrated that Rowdki has translated the renowned Arabic book “Kalila wa Dimna” in Persian in the shape of poetry. However, it is not available presently. Only one Divan of Abu Abdullah Jafar is presently available.