Allama Muhammad Iqbal was the great Muslim philosopher, thinker of Pakistan and poet of Asia. His poetry is deep and full of lessons. He was born on November 9, 1877 at Sialkot, Punjab province of Pakistan. Mr. Noor Muhammad was the name of his father. He belongs to a family of Kashmiri Brahmans who embraced Islam 300 years ago. Allama Muhammad Iqbal received early education from his native town, B.A from Government College, Lahore and M.A (Master of Arts in Philosophy) from the said college in 1899. Then, he joined education sector and appointed as lecturer. He wrote his renowned book “Bang-e-Dara” in his service tenure. Allama was not feeling happy in service and resigned.
Allama wants to get higher education. He proceeded to Europe for further higher education. Allama got a degree from Cambridge, then LLB from London and secured Ph. D. from Munich University respectively. His thesis was Philosophy of AJAM.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal returned to home in 1908 and started practice as a Barrister. He also continued to write poetry beside teaching and law practice. He wrote poetry under inspiration. At the time when these poems were written there was a move in India for inter-communal unity. But soon Iqbal realized that narrow minded nationalism was against the teachings of Islam. This brought great change in his views and become a poet of Islam. Iqbal wrote poems in Persian mostly. But soon he realized that the common man in India could not understand Persian. Therefore, he began to write in Urdu. The poetry of Iqbal is the great message of life which attracts the readers.
Critical Era of Islam
Islam was passing through a critical phase at that time and the Muslims were being rapidly dominated by the Hindus in India. Allama foresaw their downfall and warned them against its serious results. Moreover, Muslims were not in better condition in other parts of the world. Turkey, Egypt, Persia and Afghanistan were Muslim states only in name. Their politics, economy, education and above all their religious ideals were being influenced by Western thinking. Allama Muhammad Iqbal foresaw all these things and warned his people against this culture suicide.
He called the Muslim youth back to the Holly Quran and Hadith through his poetry, lectures and speeches. His famous lectures on different aspects of Islamic philosophy, which he delivered at Madras and Aligarh, brought a revolution in the thinking of young generation.
Islamic Theory of Iqbal
Allama Muhammad Iqbal presented the theory of separate homeland (Pakistan) for Indian Muslims. He was the originator of two nation-theory. Iqbal clearly referred to the partition of India in his Presidential Address at the All-India Muslims League Conference held at Allahabad, in 1930. He put a new life into the youth of his nation through poetry and looked forward to a new era of freedom and achievements..
Allama Muhammad Iqbal was not only a great poet but also a great philosopher, moralist, a reformer and an educationalist. He placed before the people his philosophy of self-realization. Allama Muhammad Iqbal was died on 21 April 1938. Iqbal is our national hero.